1 config files in 39 etc 39 need updating
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Almost, all modern Linux / UNIX line operating systems use some sort of the shadow password suite, where /etc/passwd has asterisks (*) instead of encrypted passwords, and the encrypted passwords are in /etc/shadow which is readable by the superuser only.
Here is a list of commands: The author is the creator of nix Craft and a seasoned sysadmin and a trainer for the Linux operating system/Unix shell scripting.
He has worked with global clients and in various industries, including IT, education, defense and space research, and the nonprofit sector.
file stores essential information, which is required during login i.e. /etc/passwd is a text file, which contains a list of the system’s accounts, giving for each account some useful information like user ID, group ID, home directory, shell, etc.
It should have general read permission as many utilities like ls use it to map user IDs to user names, but write access only for the superuser/root account. Generally, passwd file entry looks as follows (click to enlarge image): Your encrpted password is not stored in /etc/passwd file. In the good old days there was no great problem with this general read permission.